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The first inkling that the ocean floor might hold a treasure trove of minerals came in the late 19th Century when a Royal Navy ship, HMS Challenger, was sent on a pioneering expedition. Instead of exploring the coasts of new lands, the ship was to investigate the oceans themselves. The total mass of the hydrosphere is about 1.4 quintillion metric tons (7018140000000000000♠1.4×1018 long tons or 7018150000000000000♠1.5×1018 short tons), which is about 0.023% of Earth’s total mass. Less than 3% is freshwater; the rest is saltwater, almost all of which is in the ocean. The area of the World Ocean is about 361.9 million square kilometers (139.7 million square miles),[9] which covers about 70.9% of Earth’s surface, and its volume is approximately 1.335 billion cubic kilometers (320.3 million cubic miles).[9] This can be thought of as a cube of water with an edge length of 1,101 kilometers (684 mi). Its average depth is about 3,688 meters (12,100 ft),[9] and its maximum depth is 10,994 meters (6.831 mi) at the Mariana Trench.[29] Nearly half of the world’s marine waters are over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) deep.[16] The vast expanses of deep ocean (anything below 200 meters or 660 feet) cover about 66% of Earth’s surface.[30] This does not include seas not connected to the World Ocean, such as the Caspian Sea. It is often stated that the thermohaline circulation is the primary reason that the climate of Western Europe is so temperate. An alternate hypothesis claims that this is largely incorrect, and that Europe is warm mostly because it lies downwind of an ocean basin, and because atmospheric waves bring warm air north from the subtropics.[39][40] Obszar szelfu i stoku kontynentalnego są zbudowane ze skorupy kontynentalnej i przez geologów zaliczane do kontynentów. Obszary basenów oceanicznych, rowów oceanicznych i grzbietów śródoceanicznych mają skorupę typu oceanicznego i tworzą właściwy wszechocean. Formą pośrednią są tzw. mikrokontynenty – obszary położone na dnie oceanu, całkowicie lub prawie całkowicie przykryte wodą, a zbudowane ze skorupy kontynentalnej lub mieszanej. Terrestrial planets will acquire water during their accretion, some of which will be buried in the magma ocean but most of it will go into a steam atmosphere, and when the atmosphere cools it will collapse on to the surface forming an ocean. There will also be outgassing of water from the mantle as the magma solidifies—this will happen even for planets with a low percentage of their mass composed of water, so “super-Earth exoplanets may be expected to commonly produce water oceans within tens to hundreds of millions of years of their last major accretionary impact.”[73] Ocean’s design is influenced by its coastal setting. Blues, whites and beiges create a modern classic look, while delightful hand-crafted furniture and specially commissioned artwork emphasise the feeling of luxury. White American shutters frame stunning views over the gardens to the ocean beyond. Urge NOAA to strengthen its plan to reduce industrial ocean noise. Charles Moore, who first sailed the so-called Great Pacific Garbage Patch in 1997, has returned five times over 15 years to document the concentrations of plastic in the ocean. His results show microplastics are accumulating at a rapid rate.about 1 month ago Whether on the coast or landlocked, you can make a difference for the world’s oceans. Find out how! Covering 72 percent of the Earth and supplying half its oxygen, the ocean is our planet’s life support system—and it’s in danger. Watch this video to learn why a healthier ocean means a healthier planet, and find out how you can help. A wealth of ocean data has been and is being collected. Many of the datasets are open, yet very few are being used for resource management, business, or conservation. Most businesses, let alone individuals, do not have the time or ability to translate ocean data into actionable information, yet large industries and millions of people rely on the ocean for their livelihoods and well-being. So long as ocean data remain disconnected from services that people and markets can use, we will be unable to engage the numbers of actors needed to address critical ocean challenges. Data collection is not evenly distributed across the ocean — some regions are in need of data acquisition, a need that could be addressed through the development of demand for data services, which will in turn drive demand for data collection tools. Overall, there is a market failure for meaningful data services, and the time is ripe for market development. Whether on the coast or landlocked, you can make a difference for the world’s oceans. Find out how! „Życie to podróż, to ocean” to zapis rozmowy jaką Artur Cieślar odbył z Julią Hartwig, poetką, tłumaczką, eseistką. To niezwykle miła pogawędka dwojga wyważonych, pogodzonych z losem ludzi, którzy ową harmonią, spokojem i ciepłą atmosferą czarują czytelnika od pierwszych słów. Julia Hartwig początkowo nie chciała się zgodzić na ten wywiad. Jest skromna, nie lubi zamieszania wokół siebie i nie przepada za opowiadaniem o swojej osobie. Na tę publikację namówił ją dopiero jej wieloletni przyjaciel, Jerzy Illg. Powstała w ten sposób niewielkich rozmiarów książeczka, w której pani Julia robi wszystko, byle pozostać w cieniu. Żałuję ogromnie, iż autoryzując tekst, usunęła najbardziej intymne zwierzenia i pozbawiła swoich czytelników możliwości głębszego poznania. “Najważniejsze jest to, czy mam coś do przekazania. Jeśli nie, to szkoda sobie i innym zabierać czas”, wyznaje autorka. Widocznie jej przekaz nie musi być pokaźnych rozmiarów, by robił wrażenie. Czy zatem mamy szansę natrafić w… Thank the ocean with every breath you take, says Dr Sylvia Earle The first inkling that the ocean floor might hold a treasure trove of minerals came in the late 19th Century when a Royal Navy ship, HMS Challenger, was sent on a pioneering expedition. Instead of exploring the coasts of new lands, the ship was to investigate the oceans themselves. The XPRIZE Ocean Initiative is dedicated to ensuring our ocean is healthy, valued and understood. Some delegations were already hostile, but Pardo was well prepared and passionate, even lyrical. The dark oceans, he said, “were the womb of life”. He then quoted John Mero’s research into the “astounding” contents of the billions of nodules lying untouched on the seabed – enough aluminium to last 20,000 years, zirconium for 100,000 years and cobalt for 200,000 years. I knew we were going towards the ocean; and my great cause of apprehension was the bar. Ocean (łac. Oceanus, stgr. Ὠκεανός Okeanos – u starożytnych Greków i Rzymian mityczna rzeka oblewająca cały świat, także nazwa jej boga) [1] – wielka część hydrosfery ziemskiej, stanowiąca rozległy obszar słonej wody. Wody słone pokrywają w sumie blisko 3/4 (70,8%) Ziemi. Powierzchnia oceanów wynosi ok. 361 mln km², a ich łączna objętość ok. 1,3•1018 m³. The depths below the ocean’s surface comprise a staggering 95 percent of the Earth’s living space, and much of it is unexplored by humans.  But even more alarming was the suspicion of the Russians. To convince them that Howard Hughes was genuinely interested in nodules, executives were despatched to conferences on ocean mining where they described in detail their plans to harvest the rocks. The Nature Conservancy’s Rob Weary explains how the group brokered an innovative financing deal that could serve as a model for ocean protection in island developing nations.13 days ago The deep ocean houses an ecosystem that has learned to thrive without sunlight or warmth. Welcome to the abyss. Join Ocean Futures Society today–Be part of Jean-Michel’s team as we explore the world and address important issues. With our updates, you can add your voice for the ocean! It’s always been there, but a layer of the ocean is so distinct from the waters above and below it that it needed its own category. Uncover the secrets of the largest animals in the ocean. Seychelles has announced two new Marine Protected Areas covering 210,000 square kilometers of biodiverse ocean waters. Covering 72 percent of the Earth and supplying half its oxygen, the ocean is our planet’s life support system—and it’s in danger. 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