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We’ve drilled the ocean floor for oil and gas, scarred it with trenches for communications cables, poisoned it with old radioactive waste and chemical weapons, and polluted its remotest corners with a blizzard of discarded plastic. So, is mining a step too far? A mission to map the hidden ocean floor As mandated by the UN General Assembly, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO will coordinate the Decade’s preparatory process, inviting the global ocean community to plan for the next ten years in ocean science and technology to deliver, together, the ocean we need for the future we want! Join the next generation taking the ocean crisis into their own hands.  Tins of tuna state that they are “dolphin-friendly” so should products using cobalt say if the metal was mined on land or in the ocean? What would the best choice be anyway? Should the vents so special to Attenborough be spared and only nodule mining allowed? The rariphotic is a sort of “missing link” between medium-light reef zones and the lightless ocean beneath, known as the aphotic zone. Scientists have attributed an algal bloom that killed off $800 million worth of salmon in Chile to rising ocean temperatures, and they say other aquaculture operations around the world are at risk.about 1 month ago Oceanographers divide the ocean into different vertical zones defined by physical and biological conditions. The pelagic zone includes all open ocean regions, and can be divided into further regions categorized by depth and light abundance. The photic zone includes the oceans from the surface to a depth of 200 m; it is the region where photosynthesis can occur and is, therefore, the most biodiverse. Because plants require photosynthesis, life found deeper than the photic zone must either rely on material sinking from above (see marine snow) or find another energy source. Hydrothermal vents are the primary source of energy in what is known as the aphotic zone (depths exceeding 200 m). The pelagic part of the photic zone is known as the epipelagic. New studies show complex effects of carbon dioxide on fish population. Many studies have shown that larvae of various fish species can be negatively affected by ocean acidification. Acidification is caused by large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) entering the seawater from the atmosphere. But CO2 can also influence the food supply for the fish … more Na niektórych ciałach położonych poza klasycznie definiowaną ekosferą mogą istnieć podpowierzchniowe zbiorniki ciekłej wody. Niektóre z nich tworzą płynną warstwę wody otaczającą cały glob, pokrytą skorupą lodową o wielokilometrowej grubości. Taki podpowierzchniowy ocean posiadają niektóre księżyce planet, w szczególności Europa, a także prawdopodobnie Ganimedes i Kallisto, dwa inne galileuszowe księżyce Jowisza oraz Tytan i Enceladus, krążące wokół Saturna[6]. Ocean na Europie przypuszczalnie ma kontakt ze skalistym wnętrzem księżyca i na jego dnie może mieć miejsce aktywność wulkaniczna lub hydrotermalna; także ocean na Enceladusie rozciąga się między lodową skorupą a skałami[7]. Prawdopodobne oceany na trzech największych księżycach lodowych są uwięzione pomiędzy dwiema warstwami lodu o różnej strukturze krystalicznej i gęstości[8]. Modele ewolucji termicznej wskazują także na możliwość powstania takich zbiorników na niektórych większych obiektach transneptunowych[9] (plutoidach). Consumer products giant P&G is tackling marine pollution by creating bottles made from beach plastic and developing new technologies to reduce waste. P&G’s Virginie Helias talks about the importance of collaboration to solve the ocean plastic crisis.27 days ago In addition, many land animals have adapted to living a major part of their life on the oceans. For instance, seabirds are a diverse group of birds that have adapted to a life mainly on the oceans. They feed on marine animals and spend most of their lifetime on water, many only going on land for breeding. Other birds that have adapted to oceans as their living space are penguins, seagulls and pelicans. Seven species of turtles, the sea turtles, also spend most of their time in the oceans. “Where we’ll be operating, it’s cold and dark,” says one senior Nautilus executive. “There are no tuna there, they need entirely different conditions near the surface of the ocean.” But today, Pardo’s vision is becoming reality as the UN’s International Seabed Authority has drawn up maps dividing the ocean into blocks. Although Earth is the only known planet with large stable bodies of liquid water on its surface and the only one in the Solar System, other celestial bodies are thought to have large oceans.[59] On 1 November 1967, a UN committee was meeting in New York and the ambassador from the island nation of Malta was invited to speak. Dr Arvid Pardo faced an uphill struggle. He was suggesting that the deep oceans should be reserved for peaceful activities and that the mineral wealth should be shared by all of mankind. The deepest point in the ocean is the Mariana Trench, located in the Pacific Ocean near the Northern Mariana Islands. Its maximum depth has been estimated to be 10,971 meters (35,994 ft) (plus or minus 11 meters; see the Mariana Trench article for discussion of the various estimates of the maximum depth.) The British naval vessel Challenger II surveyed the trench in 1951 and named the deepest part of the trench the “Challenger Deep”. In 1960, the Trieste successfully reached the bottom of the trench, manned by a crew of two men. In an air-conditioned cabin in a teeming port in Papua New Guinea, Leslie Kewa reaches for a joystick that will control a machine the size of a house. Nearly half a century after the CIA men pretended to mine the ocean floor, he’s about to do it for real.  @oceanprime_cmr The gas giants, Jupiter and Saturn, are thought to lack surfaces and instead have a stratum of liquid hydrogen, however their planetary geology is not well understood. The possibility of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune having hot, highly compressed, supercritical water under their thick atmospheres has been hypothesised. Although their composition is still not fully understood, a 2006 study by Wiktorowicz and Ingersall ruled out the possibility of such a water “ocean” existing on Neptune,[60] though some studies have suggested that exotic oceans of liquid diamond are possible.[61] A result of studies is to obtain advanced wide technical knowledge and skills necessary to creative designing, building, repairs and exploitation of ships and ocean engineering objects W tym zakątku oceanu jest coraz więcej pereł. Sprawy na serio wymykają się spod kontroli. Czy potrafisz dopasować je według koloru w tej zabawnej i trudnej grze logicznej? Tylko w ten sposób możesz się ich pozbyć. If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in temperature with depth, it contains a thermocline. The tropical thermocline is typically deeper than the thermocline at higher latitudes. Polar waters, which receive relatively little solar energy, are not stratified by temperature and generally lack a thermocline because surface water at polar latitudes are nearly as cold as water at greater depths. Below the thermocline, water is very cold, ranging from −1 °C to 3 °C. Because this deep and cold layer contains the bulk of ocean water, the average temperature of the world ocean is 3.9 °C.[citation needed] If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in salinity with depth, it contains a halocline. If a zone undergoes a strong, vertical chemistry gradient with depth, it contains a chemocline. Covering 72 percent of the Earth and supplying half its oxygen, the ocean is our planet’s life support system—and it’s in danger. Watch this video… more Professor Richard Twitchett explains what a more acidic ocean could mean for the future of marine life. “It’s estimated that 95 per cent of the liveable space on our planet is in the ocean,” said Dr Carole Baldwin, curator of fishes at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History and lead author of the study. 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