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To put into perspective just how deep the oceans go, created the illustration below (click the image for a larger version). Despite their deep, dark habitat, the fish species the scientists found inhabiting this region tended to resemble the colourful fish found on coral reefs rather than true deep-ocean fishes. A global layer of liquid water thick enough to decouple the crust from the mantle is thought to be present on the natural satellites Titan, Europa, Enceladus and, with less certainty, Callisto, Ganymede[62][63] and Triton.[64][65] A magma ocean is thought to be present on Io. Geysers have been found on Saturn’s moon Enceladus, possibly originating from about 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) deep ocean beneath an ice shell.[57] Other icy moons may also have internal oceans, or may once have had internal oceans that have now frozen.[66] Viking introduces the definitive way to explore the world in comfort. We call them Ocean & River Voyages, an innovative marriage of our award-winning river and ocean cruises. Designed for those who want to get the most from our rivers and oceans itineraries, these enriching journeys highlight the historic treasures, colorful cultures and seldom-seen sights of both inland and coastal destinations, so you’ll enjoy the full Viking experience on one seamless itinerary. These are epic voyages that only Viking can provide. One of the authors, Prof Edward Hill from the UK National Oceanography Centre told BBC News: “The ocean is critical to our economic future. Nine billion people will be looking to the ocean for more food. Yet we know so little of what’s down there. Obecnie poza Ziemią nie są znane żadne ciała niebieskie, na których potwierdzona byłaby obecność powierzchniowych zbiorników ciekłej wody. Prawdopodobnie przed 3-4 miliardami lat istniał ocean na Marsie, jednak utrata pola magnetycznego i rozrzedzenie atmosfery planety przyczyniły się do jego zaniknięcia. Do głównych form ukształtowania dna oceanicznego zalicza się: If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in temperature with depth, it contains a thermocline. The tropical thermocline is typically deeper than the thermocline at higher latitudes. Polar waters, which receive relatively little solar energy, are not stratified by temperature and generally lack a thermocline because surface water at polar latitudes are nearly as cold as water at greater depths. Below the thermocline, water is very cold, ranging from −1 °C to 3 °C. Because this deep and cold layer contains the bulk of ocean water, the average temperature of the world ocean is 3.9 °C.[citation needed] If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in salinity with depth, it contains a halocline. If a zone undergoes a strong, vertical chemistry gradient with depth, it contains a chemocline. Thank you for considering a donation to Ocean Media Institute. As a creative media hub, OMI fosters the democratization of ocean science by working collaboratively with organizations, academic institutions, aquaria, and museums across the globe to produce and openly distribute innovative visual stories to address ocean issues. You can be assured that any financial contribution you make will go directly to expanding our shared vision for ocean conservation. Supercritical fluids, although not liquids, do share various properties with liquids. Underneath the thick atmospheres of the planets Uranus and Neptune, it is expected that these planets are composed of oceans of hot high-density fluid mixtures of water, ammonia and other volatiles.[86] The gaseous outer layers of Jupiter and Saturn transition smoothly into oceans of supercritical hydrogen.[87][88] The atmosphere of Venus is 96.5% carbon dioxide, which is a supercritical fluid at its surface. Earth may be the blue planet, but beneath the ocean waves lies a vast forest of green.  The deep ocean houses an ecosystem that has learned to thrive without sunlight or warmth. Welcome to the abyss. The benthic zones are aphotic and correspond to the three deepest zones of the deep-sea. The bathyal zone covers the continental slope down to about 4,000 meters (13,000 ft). The abyssal zone covers the abyssal plains between 4,000 and 6,000 m. Lastly, the hadal zone corresponds to the hadalpelagic zone, which is found in oceanic trenches. A result of studies is to obtain advanced wide technical knowledge and skills necessary to creative designing, building, repairs and exploitation of ships and ocean engineering objects The XPRIZE Ocean Initiative is dedicated to ensuring our ocean is healthy, valued and understood. Oceans X Labs, a joint initiative of Conservation X Labs and WWF, is matching big ideas with the brightest minds in search of solutions to the global challenges of oceans conservation. First, there were the fish. Then (about 400 million years later) there was a lot of fishing. That’s when we came along. An eclectic bunch of design thinkers, business consultants, journalists, and scientists, we believe in the power of entrepreneurship and collaboration as potent forces for positive change in the world—including in the oceans. “We have largely thought of fish as very alien and very simple, so we didn’t really care how we killed them,” Braithwaite says. “If we look at trawl netting, that’s a pretty gruesome way for fish to die: the barometric trauma of getting ripped from the ocean into open air, and then slowly suffocating. Can we do that more humanely? Yes. Should we? Probably, yes. We’re mostly not doing it at the moment because it’s more expensive to kill fish humanely, especially in the wild.” The report highlights many concerns, including the current worry about ocean plastic litter, which it forecasts will treble between 2015 and 2025. SOA’s mission is reinforced through our national and international high school, university, and young professional chapters. Our goal is to have 200 global chapters by 2018, each focused on developing advocacy campaigns targeting local elected officials, hosting community-centered impact events, and raising awareness about the common responsibility to protect our ocean. What is ocean acidification? See award-winning shots capturing life in the ocean. Plastics is just one issue facing the world’s seas, along with rising sea levels, warming oceans, and pollution, it says. Fish are catchable when fishing using a fishing pole. They can be found in the ocean, lake or river, and some are unique to either day or night or only appear when it rains. Fish are used in cooking and the fishing community center bundles. The length of each fish type is recorded, and viewable on the collection screen. 4Ocean is a global movement actively removing trash from the ocean and coastlines while inspiring individuals to work together for cleaner oceans, one pound at a time. The first inkling that the ocean floor might hold a treasure trove of minerals came in the late 19th Century when a Royal Navy ship, HMS Challenger, was sent on a pioneering expedition. Instead of exploring the coasts of new lands, the ship was to investigate the oceans themselves. NRDC works to protect our seas from pollution and exploitation. We help implement laws that allow overfished species to rebound, and we fight to protect coastal communities from offshore drilling. We work to ban destructive fishing practices, conserve ocean treasures, and improve stewardship of the world’s shared oceans, which generate trillions of dollars in economic activity. As you can see, most of the ocean doesn’t even see sunlight. Terrestrial planets will acquire water during their accretion, some of which will be buried in the magma ocean but most of it will go into a steam atmosphere, and when the atmosphere cools it will collapse on to the surface forming an ocean. There will also be outgassing of water from the mantle as the magma solidifies—this will happen even for planets with a low percentage of their mass composed of water, so “super-Earth exoplanets may be expected to commonly produce water oceans within tens to hundreds of millions of years of their last major accretionary impact.”[73] Resources are available for GIS for ocean planning and for aid transparency. Oregon’s year-round fishing spans the state from native redband trout in eastern deserts to rockfish and halibut in ocean waters – with lots of salmon, steelhead, trout and warmwater fishing in between. 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