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Most studies looking at how corals will respond to future increases in ocean acidity are based on laboratory studies. This week in the journal Nature, researchers reported on a large-scale experiment to simulate these conditions in a natural coral ecosystem. Sustainable development and conservation of ocean and coastal resources requires the insights… Obszar szelfu i stoku kontynentalnego są zbudowane ze skorupy kontynentalnej i przez geologów zaliczane do kontynentów. Obszary basenów oceanicznych, rowów oceanicznych i grzbietów śródoceanicznych mają skorupę typu oceanicznego i tworzą właściwy wszechocean. Formą pośrednią są tzw. mikrokontynenty – obszary położone na dnie oceanu, całkowicie lub prawie całkowicie przykryte wodą, a zbudowane ze skorupy kontynentalnej lub mieszanej. Vast and wondrous, our ocean covers more than 70% of our planet. It controls the weather and climate. It provides life, food and medicine. It is key to a thriving global economy and has inspired art, poetry and tales of adventures for centuries. Yet through neglect and a startling lack of access it has lingered as an afterthought in our conservation and exploration efforts. “It’s estimated that 95 percent of the livable space on our planet is in the ocean, yet only a fraction of that space has been explored,” said study lead author Carole Baldwin of the NMNH. The mesopelagic area of the ocean plays a crucial role in marine ecosystems, but it has remained largely untouched and unexplored But now some nations are eyeing the deep sea as potentially rich new fishing grounds.24 days ago While changing ocean and sea ice conditions are hurting some of Antarctica’s Adelie penguins, a newly discovered “supercolony” of 1.5 million offers new information to guide marine conservation.17 days ago The fish themselves may be different species each year, brought from a different part of the ocean. Our mission is to explore our global ocean, inspiring and educating people throughout the world to act responsibly for its protection, documenting the critical connection between humanity and nature, and celebrating the ocean’s vital importance to the survival of all life on our planet. The fish themselves may be different species each year, brought from a different part of the ocean. Oceanographers divide the ocean into different vertical zones defined by physical and biological conditions. The pelagic zone includes all open ocean regions, and can be divided into further regions categorized by depth and light abundance. The photic zone includes the oceans from the surface to a depth of 200 m; it is the region where photosynthesis can occur and is, therefore, the most biodiverse. Because plants require photosynthesis, life found deeper than the photic zone must either rely on material sinking from above (see marine snow) or find another energy source. Hydrothermal vents are the primary source of energy in what is known as the aphotic zone (depths exceeding 200 m). The pelagic part of the photic zone is known as the epipelagic. Extraterrestrial oceans may be composed of water or other elements and compounds. The only confirmed large stable bodies of extraterrestrial surface liquids are the lakes of Titan, although there is evidence for the existence of oceans elsewhere in the Solar System. Early in their geologic histories, Mars and Venus are theorized to have had large water oceans. The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, and a runaway greenhouse effect may have boiled away the global ocean of Venus. Compounds such as salts and ammonia dissolved in water lower its freezing point so that water might exist in large quantities in extraterrestrial environments as brine or convecting ice. Unconfirmed oceans are speculated beneath the surface of many dwarf planets and natural satellites; notably, the ocean of Europa is estimated to have over twice the water volume of Earth. The Solar System’s giant planets are also thought to have liquid atmospheric layers of yet to be confirmed compositions. Oceans may also exist on exoplanets and exomoons, including surface oceans of liquid water within a circumstellar habitable zone. Ocean planets are a hypothetical type of planet with a surface completely covered with liquid.[11][12] We very much want you on board this wave, with upswells worldwide of people who will inherit the oceans.   Some delegations were already hostile, but Pardo was well prepared and passionate, even lyrical. The dark oceans, he said, “were the womb of life”. He then quoted John Mero’s research into the “astounding” contents of the billions of nodules lying untouched on the seabed – enough aluminium to last 20,000 years, zirconium for 100,000 years and cobalt for 200,000 years. “We have largely thought of fish as very alien and very simple, so we didn’t really care how we killed them,” Braithwaite says. “If we look at trawl netting, that’s a pretty gruesome way for fish to die: the barometric trauma of getting ripped from the ocean into open air, and then slowly suffocating. Can we do that more humanely? Yes. Should we? Probably, yes. We’re mostly not doing it at the moment because it’s more expensive to kill fish humanely, especially in the wild.” Scientists estimate more than 2 million species live in ocean waters and nine out of 10 haven’t been fully identified. The Marine Living Planet Index recorded a 36% overall decline in the abundance of marine life between 1970 and 2012. Unsustainable fishing is the primary direct threat to marine population, followed by habitat changes, which can also include a loss of food sources. Tins of tuna state that they are “dolphin-friendly” so should products using cobalt say if the metal was mined on land or in the ocean? What would the best choice be anyway? Should the vents so special to Attenborough be spared and only nodule mining allowed? In the center of the Pacific Ocean gyre our researchers found more plastic than plankton. A Plastic Ocean documents the newest science, proving how plastics, once they enter the oceans, break up into small particulates that enter the food chain where they attract toxins like a magnet. These toxins are stored in seafood’s fatty tissues, and eventually consumed by us. A Wave Glider named Europa is slowly crossing the Pacific, listening for whale songs. If the robot finds evidence that humpbacks congregate in the remote open ocean, it could help scientists protect endangered populations of the marine mammal.28 days ago When you purchase the 4Ocean Signature Blue and Limited Edition Coral Reef Bracelets, we will remove two pounds of trash from the ocean and coastlines and also help to restore and regrow coral reefs through our partnership with the Coral Restoration Foundation*. These bracelets represent your support. Oceans Deeply is designed to help you understand the complex web of environmental, social and economic issues facing the world’s oceans. Our editors and expert contributors work to bring you greater clarity and comprehensive coverage of ocean health. As you can see, most of the ocean doesn’t even see sunlight. Endangered Waves can empower and incentivize surfers (there are 24 million worldwide) to monitor the health of their coastlines through crowdsourced data. Surfers can use this app to create crowdsourced data to identify and then reduce hazards in their local surf breaks. In the US, tourism and recreation comprise 72% of employment in the ocean economy and 31% of its gross value. Creating apps that cater to this market isn’t indulgent, it’s good business sense. The ocean covers more than two-thirds of our planet, and there’s so much of it left unexplored. How are we humans supposed to blend in to uncover all of its secrets, when our observation tools are hooked to clunky vehicles with fish-scaring propellers and jets? He told BBC News: “There’s a continuous process of exploring for new things to exploit in the oceans, and that’s happening faster than we scientists can keep up with. 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