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Oceans, seas, lakes and other bodies of liquids can be composed of liquids other than water, for example the hydrocarbon lakes on Titan. The possibility of seas of nitrogen on Triton was also considered but ruled out.[74] There is evidence that the icy surfaces of the moons Ganymede, Callisto, Europa, Titan and Enceladus are shells floating on oceans of very dense liquid water or water–ammonia.[75][76][77][78][79] Earth is often called the ocean planet because it is 70% covered in water.[80][81] Extrasolar terrestrial planets that are extremely close to their parent star will be tidally locked and so one half of the planet will be a magma ocean.[82] It is also possible that terrestrial planets had magma oceans at some point during their formation as a result of giant impacts.[83] Hot Neptunes close to their star could lose their atmospheres via hydrodynamic escape, leaving behind their cores with various liquids on the surface.[84] Where there are suitable temperatures and pressures, volatile chemicals that might exist as liquids in abundant quantities on planets include ammonia, argon, carbon disulfide, ethane, hydrazine, hydrogen, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, methane, neon, nitrogen, nitric oxide, phosphine, silane, sulfuric acid, and water.[85] The deep ocean houses an ecosystem that has learned to thrive without sunlight or warmth. Welcome to the abyss. If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in temperature with depth, it contains a thermocline. The tropical thermocline is typically deeper than the thermocline at higher latitudes. Polar waters, which receive relatively little solar energy, are not stratified by temperature and generally lack a thermocline because surface water at polar latitudes are nearly as cold as water at greater depths. Below the thermocline, water is very cold, ranging from −1 °C to 3 °C. Because this deep and cold layer contains the bulk of ocean water, the average temperature of the world ocean is 3.9 °C.[citation needed] If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in salinity with depth, it contains a halocline. If a zone undergoes a strong, vertical chemistry gradient with depth, it contains a chemocline. Ocean currents greatly affect Earth’s climate by transferring heat from the tropics to the polar regions. Transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, winds may carry them inland. Surface heat and freshwater fluxes create global density gradients that drive the thermohaline circulation part of large-scale ocean circulation. It plays an important role in supplying heat to the polar regions, and thus in sea ice regulation. Changes in the thermohaline circulation are thought to have significant impacts on Earth’s energy budget. In so far as the thermohaline circulation governs the rate at which deep waters reach the surface, it may also significantly influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Extraterrestrial oceans may be composed of water or other elements and compounds. The only confirmed large stable bodies of extraterrestrial surface liquids are the lakes of Titan, although there is evidence for the existence of oceans elsewhere in the Solar System. Early in their geologic histories, Mars and Venus are theorized to have had large water oceans. The Mars ocean hypothesis suggests that nearly a third of the surface of Mars was once covered by water, and a runaway greenhouse effect may have boiled away the global ocean of Venus. Compounds such as salts and ammonia dissolved in water lower its freezing point so that water might exist in large quantities in extraterrestrial environments as brine or convecting ice. Unconfirmed oceans are speculated beneath the surface of many dwarf planets and natural satellites; notably, the ocean of Europa is estimated to have over twice the water volume of Earth. The Solar System’s giant planets are also thought to have liquid atmospheric layers of yet to be confirmed compositions. Oceans may also exist on exoplanets and exomoons, including surface oceans of liquid water within a circumstellar habitable zone. Ocean planets are a hypothetical type of planet with a surface completely covered with liquid.[11][12] As you can see, most of the ocean doesn’t even see sunlight. Nine teams are advancing in the XPRIZE Foundation’s $7 million contest to create technologies that will scale up humanity’s ability to understand and chart the deep ocean.10 days ago Covering 72 percent of the Earth and supplying half its oxygen, the ocean is our planet’s life support system—and it’s in danger. Watch this video… more Thank the ocean with every breath you take, says Dr Sylvia Earle For the time being, SoFi is remote-controlled. But the idea is that future versions would use machine vision to lock onto individual fish and follow them around, all without raising suspicion. That could help scientists study schooling dynamics, or monitor the health of fish populations in increasingly unhealthy oceans. “It could help us with the problems of fish avoidance and fish attraction that are associated with other forms of monitoring with robots and divers,” says Northeastern’s Hanumant Singh, who develops autonomous underwater vehicles but was not involved in the research. Then join UNESCO’s IOC to design the UN Decade of Ocean Science and have your say about the next 10 years of ocean science development! Covering 72 percent of the Earth and supplying half its oxygen, the ocean is our planet’s life support system—and it’s in danger. Watch this video to learn why a healthier ocean means a healthier planet, and find out how you can help. Według tektoniki płyt skorupa ziemska powstaje w przybliżeniu w takim samym tempie, w jakim jest niszczona w strefach subdukcji, a łączna objętość oceanów nie ulega zmianie (nie licząc rozrostu i topnienia lodowców). Jedne oceany mogą powiększać się tylko kosztem innych; w historii Ziemi istniały zbiorniki oceaniczne, które zamknęły się na skutek ruchu kontynentów (paleooceany), a ich osady wypiętrzyły się tworząc łańcuchy górskie (m.in. Himalaje). Dzisiejsze oceany Atlantycki, Arktyczny i Indyjski są geologicznie młodymi oceanami, które powstały w erze mezozoicznej i rozrastają się obecnie kosztem Pacyfiku. Scientists designed SoFi to solve several problems that bedevil oceanic robotics. Problem one: communication. Underwater vehicles are typically tethered to a boat because radio waves don’t do well in water. What SoFi’s inventors have opted for instead is sound. The pelagic zone can be further subdivided into two subregions: the neritic zone and the oceanic zone. The neritic zone encompasses the water mass directly above the continental shelves whereas the oceanic zone includes all the completely open water. Join the next generation taking the ocean crisis into their own hands.  GCOS Implementation Plan 2016   !NEW! Publications GOOS webinar on OceanSITES’ Unique Role in the Observing System Available here OceanSITES poster at EGU2015 Poster 1 Poster 2 Deep-Ocean T/S Challenge: Contribute a deep-ocean T/S Sensor! More information Beaked whales can dive 2,000 metres below the ocean’s surface. Why and how do they do it? The Ocean Media Institute is a global media collective that serves to create, educate, and advocate for the protection of the ocean. As a creative hub for individuals and organizations worldwide, our goal is to work in collaboration with artists and filmmakers, organizations and academic institutions, aquaria and museums to produce, exhibit, and openly distribute media that promotes public understanding of ocean science and conservation. This challenge is important because there is a wealth of ocean data being collected, but so little of it being used. As long as ocean data remains disconnected, we are unable to address the critical challenges our ocean faces. Our oceans have absorbed most of the planet’s warming—over 90%—and a significant amount of our carbon pollution. Warmer oceans are driving stronger storms and bleaching coral reefs. As oceans absorb carbon dioxide, they become more acidic, threatening most shelled organisms, including small crustaceans fundamental to the marine food chain. Graduates obtain advanced  general technical knowledge and skills necessary for creative use in the design, construction, repair and operation of ships, ocean engineering objects and systems present in the maritime sector. Graduate is prepared to execute designing and construction works in the area of ​​Ocean Engineering; conducting scientific researches in the area of ​​Ocean Engineering; production management, operation and  repairs of ships and ocean engineering objects and teamwork in an international environment. A graduate is also prepared to work in factories of widely recognized shipbuilding sector; designing and engineering offices of shipbuilding and maritime branch; R & D centres of shipbuilding and maritime economy; enterprise advisory and consulting services in the area of ​​Ocean Engineering; shipbuilding classification institutions; Maritime Administration and the international institutions of the naval sector. 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