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Na niektórych ciałach położonych poza klasycznie definiowaną ekosferą mogą istnieć podpowierzchniowe zbiorniki ciekłej wody. Niektóre z nich tworzą płynną warstwę wody otaczającą cały glob, pokrytą skorupą lodową o wielokilometrowej grubości. Taki podpowierzchniowy ocean posiadają niektóre księżyce planet, w szczególności Europa, a także prawdopodobnie Ganimedes i Kallisto, dwa inne galileuszowe księżyce Jowisza oraz Tytan i Enceladus, krążące wokół Saturna[6]. Ocean na Europie przypuszczalnie ma kontakt ze skalistym wnętrzem księżyca i na jego dnie może mieć miejsce aktywność wulkaniczna lub hydrotermalna; także ocean na Enceladusie rozciąga się między lodową skorupą a skałami[7]. Prawdopodobne oceany na trzech największych księżycach lodowych są uwięzione pomiędzy dwiema warstwami lodu o różnej strukturze krystalicznej i gęstości[8]. Modele ewolucji termicznej wskazują także na możliwość powstania takich zbiorników na niektórych większych obiektach transneptunowych[9] (plutoidach). For adding additional datasets you want listed email or leave a comment in the Comments Thread.  Advocates of exploiting the ocean also point to the size of mines on land compared with those that would be operated underwater. Kennecott in Utah and Chuquicamata and Escondida in Chile involve mind-bogglingly large holes in the ground. They stretch nearly three miles across (4km) and reach more than half a mile deep (645m-1200m). Michael Lodge admits that but also argues that the areas affected will be tiny compared with the vastness of the oceans – “much less than half a per cent” – and that big areas have been earmarked as reserves to be left untouched. The gas giants, Jupiter and Saturn, are thought to lack surfaces and instead have a stratum of liquid hydrogen, however their planetary geology is not well understood. The possibility of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune having hot, highly compressed, supercritical water under their thick atmospheres has been hypothesised. Although their composition is still not fully understood, a 2006 study by Wiktorowicz and Ingersall ruled out the possibility of such a water “ocean” existing on Neptune,[60] though some studies have suggested that exotic oceans of liquid diamond are possible.[61] Sustainable development and conservation of ocean and coastal resources requires the insights… It’s time to give our ocean our full attention. What was the ocean like when dinosaurs roamed the Earth? Under a mandate from the UN General Assembly, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO is now working to bring together all ocean stakeholders to develop a common Implementation Plan for the UN Decade of Ocean Science. Scientists testing North Atlantic mesopelagic fish eaten by the ocean’s top predators found that nearly 75 percent were contaminated with microplastic fibers. Researchers have also discovered microplastics in the scat of gray seals and in the Atlantic mackerel they eat.23 days ago To keep oceans healthy, we must fully understand the science of diverse fisheries and build management systems to control when, where, how, and how much people fish.  It’s time to give our ocean our full attention. The Soft Robotic Fish, aka SoFi, is a hypnotic machine, the likes of which the sea has never seen before. In a paper published today in Science Robotics, MIT researchers detail the evolution of the world’s strangest fish, and describe how it could be a potentially powerful tool for scientists to study ocean life. SeaSee App shows us what the world would look like if the oceans were drained of water, using bathymetric (seafloor depth) data to generate 3D views. This app allows you to explore the ocean floor, from shipwrecks to marine habitats. Esri and our partners help you build a location strategy and meet your ocean management goals. W wodzie oceanicznej znajduje się od 33 do 38 promili (licząc wagowo) różnych soli nieorganicznych. Stężenie to jest różne w różnych miejscach, lecz proporcje jonów są stałe. W kilogramie wody o stężeniu 35 promili znajduje się: Oceans, seas, lakes and other bodies of liquids can be composed of liquids other than water, for example the hydrocarbon lakes on Titan. The possibility of seas of nitrogen on Triton was also considered but ruled out.[74] There is evidence that the icy surfaces of the moons Ganymede, Callisto, Europa, Titan and Enceladus are shells floating on oceans of very dense liquid water or water–ammonia.[75][76][77][78][79] Earth is often called the ocean planet because it is 70% covered in water.[80][81] Extrasolar terrestrial planets that are extremely close to their parent star will be tidally locked and so one half of the planet will be a magma ocean.[82] It is also possible that terrestrial planets had magma oceans at some point during their formation as a result of giant impacts.[83] Hot Neptunes close to their star could lose their atmospheres via hydrodynamic escape, leaving behind their cores with various liquids on the surface.[84] Where there are suitable temperatures and pressures, volatile chemicals that might exist as liquids in abundant quantities on planets include ammonia, argon, carbon disulfide, ethane, hydrazine, hydrogen, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, methane, neon, nitrogen, nitric oxide, phosphine, silane, sulfuric acid, and water.[85] NRDC works to protect our seas from pollution and exploitation. We help implement laws that allow overfished species to rebound, and we fight to protect coastal communities from offshore drilling. We work to ban destructive fishing practices, conserve ocean treasures, and improve stewardship of the world’s shared oceans, which generate trillions of dollars in economic activity. The amount of plastic in the ocean is set to treble in a decade unless litter is curbed, a major report has warned. Despite their deep, dark habitat, the fish species the scientists found inhabiting this region tended to resemble the colourful fish found on coral reefs rather than true deep-ocean fishes. Navisea is designed for planning and tracking ocean voyages, and includes data on traffic, ports, docks, navigation, and weather. This app can make navigation tools accessible to smaller vessels and marry data from the economic-focused shipping industry with the environmental-focused government and NGO datasets. The total mass of the hydrosphere is about 1.4 quintillion metric tons (7018140000000000000♠1.4×1018 long tons or 7018150000000000000♠1.5×1018 short tons), which is about 0.023% of Earth’s total mass. Less than 3% is freshwater; the rest is saltwater, almost all of which is in the ocean. The area of the World Ocean is about 361.9 million square kilometers (139.7 million square miles),[9] which covers about 70.9% of Earth’s surface, and its volume is approximately 1.335 billion cubic kilometers (320.3 million cubic miles).[9] This can be thought of as a cube of water with an edge length of 1,101 kilometers (684 mi). Its average depth is about 3,688 meters (12,100 ft),[9] and its maximum depth is 10,994 meters (6.831 mi) at the Mariana Trench.[29] Nearly half of the world’s marine waters are over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) deep.[16] The vast expanses of deep ocean (anything below 200 meters or 660 feet) cover about 66% of Earth’s surface.[30] This does not include seas not connected to the World Ocean, such as the Caspian Sea. Seychelles has announced two new Marine Protected Areas covering 210,000 square kilometers of biodiverse ocean waters. Scientists testing North Atlantic mesopelagic fish eaten by the ocean’s top predators found that nearly 75 percent were contaminated with microplastic fibers. Researchers have also discovered microplastics in the scat of gray seals and in the Atlantic mackerel they eat.23 days ago The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) projects that the ocean economy will more than double in size by 2030. The impact of this growth will be profound around the world and give Canada the opportunity to spur the development and adoption of technologies that will support both higher value output from ocean resources and greater sustainability in established and emerging ocean sectors. What can antique corals reveal about the impact of climate change on the ocean? Did you know that coral reefs support more species than any other marine environment and rival rainforests in their biodiversity? 2018 is the third International Year of the Reef—a platform to highlight the importance of coral reefs. Covering less than one percent of the planet, reefs are the home to 25 percent of marine species and supply food to millions of people. They are also vital to our ocean economy, providing billions of dollars in services, such coastal protection, jobs, tourism and more. como agrandar los labios naturalmente yahoo colocar alargador de 2mm doi aumentare massa muscolare esercizi integratori erezione prostataoperation krankenhausaufenthalt prise de masse half body ou split como aumentar los senos y gluteos naturalmente pisellino bambini in inglese keukenhof gardens holland map allungamento corona clinica costo como estirar el pene naturalmente niet afvallen pflanzliches arginin solution impuissance produit pour maigrir et muscler moeite met plassen man potens konjugation circonciso naturale dieta da palestra proteine da assumere agrandir sa queue impotencia 23 años esercizi per allungamento colonna vertebrale mon homme bande mou que faire ejercicios caseros para alargar el miembro el pene del negro corso ricostruzione unghie acrilico milano troponin i creatine kinase el lagarto está llorando verano 2015 statyer små snoppar