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The pelagic part of the aphotic zone can be further divided into vertical regions according to temperature. The mesopelagic is the uppermost region. Its lowermost boundary is at a thermocline of 12 °C (54 °F), which, in the tropics generally lies at 700–1,000 meters (2,300–3,300 ft). Next is the bathypelagic lying between 10 and 4 °C (50 and 39 °F), typically between 700–1,000 meters (2,300–3,300 ft) and 2,000–4,000 meters (6,600–13,100 ft), lying along the top of the abyssal plain is the abyssopelagic, whose lower boundary lies at about 6,000 meters (20,000 ft). The last zone includes the deep oceanic trench, and is known as the hadalpelagic. This lies between 6,000–11,000 meters (20,000–36,000 ft) and is the deepest oceanic zone. Large bodies of liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan, although they are not large enough to be considered oceans and are sometimes referred to as lakes or seas. The Cassini–Huygens space mission initially discovered only what appeared to be dry lakebeds and empty river channels, suggesting that Titan had lost what surface liquids it might have had. Cassini’s more recent fly-by of Titan offers radar images that strongly suggest hydrocarbon lakes exist near the colder polar regions. Titan is thought to have a subsurface liquid-water ocean under the ice and hydrocarbon mix that forms its outer crust. Covering 72 percent of the Earth and supplying half its oxygen, the ocean is our planet’s life support system—and it’s in danger. Watch this video to learn why a healthier ocean means a healthier planet, and find out how you can help. In fact, getting to the deepest reaches of the ocean is so expensive that some people – like Oscar-winning director James Cameron – take it upon themselves to explore underwater spaces rarely visited by humans. W zależności od klasyfikacji, wyróżnia się jeden, trzy, cztery lub pięć oceanów[2][3][4][5]: The rariphotic is a sort of “missing link” between medium-light reef zones and the lightless ocean beneath, known as the aphotic zone. The mission of OceanSITES is to collect, deliver and promote the use of high-quality data from long-term, high-frequency observations at fixed locations in the open ocean. OceanSITES typically aim to collect multidisciplinary data worldwide from the full-depth water column as well as the overlying atmosphere. ©2018 · 1A, Heienhaff · L-1736 Senningerberg · Luxembourg · Navisea is designed for planning and tracking ocean voyages, and includes data on traffic, ports, docks, navigation, and weather. This app can make navigation tools accessible to smaller vessels and marry data from the economic-focused shipping industry with the environmental-focused government and NGO datasets. We must know the value of our ocean to ensure conservation has a voice in ocean development. Although Earth is the only known planet with large stable bodies of liquid water on its surface and the only one in the Solar System, other celestial bodies are thought to have large oceans.[59] © 2013 | The Ocean Media Institute is a global media collective that serves to create, educate, and advocate for the protection of the ocean. As a creative hub for individuals and organizations worldwide, our goal is to work in collaboration with artists and filmmakers, organizations and academic institutions, aquaria and museums to produce, exhibit, and openly distribute media that promotes public understanding of ocean science and conservation. This challenge is important because there is a wealth of ocean data being collected, but so little of it being used. As long as ocean data remains disconnected, we are unable to address the critical challenges our ocean faces. If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in temperature with depth, it contains a thermocline. The tropical thermocline is typically deeper than the thermocline at higher latitudes. Polar waters, which receive relatively little solar energy, are not stratified by temperature and generally lack a thermocline because surface water at polar latitudes are nearly as cold as water at greater depths. Below the thermocline, water is very cold, ranging from −1 °C to 3 °C. Because this deep and cold layer contains the bulk of ocean water, the average temperature of the world ocean is 3.9 °C.[citation needed] If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in salinity with depth, it contains a halocline. If a zone undergoes a strong, vertical chemistry gradient with depth, it contains a chemocline. Our oceans are changing fast. Find out how Museum collections are helping scientists to understand the future of marine life. Though the cove was more quiet than the ocean, yet it was fearful enough, even there. What is it like to stand on the ocean floor? What do you learn from a lifetime spent in the heart of the sea?  +44 (0)20 7292 6161 Terms & Conditions In an air-conditioned cabin in a teeming port in Papua New Guinea, Leslie Kewa reaches for a joystick that will control a machine the size of a house. Nearly half a century after the CIA men pretended to mine the ocean floor, he’s about to do it for real. In addition, many land animals have adapted to living a major part of their life on the oceans. For instance, seabirds are a diverse group of birds that have adapted to a life mainly on the oceans. They feed on marine animals and spend most of their lifetime on water, many only going on land for breeding. Other birds that have adapted to oceans as their living space are penguins, seagulls and pelicans. Seven species of turtles, the sea turtles, also spend most of their time in the oceans. What is it like to stand on the ocean floor? What do you learn from a lifetime spent in the heart of the sea?  „Życie to podróż, to ocean” to zapis rozmowy jaką Artur Cieślar odbył z Julią Hartwig, poetką, tłumaczką, eseistką. To niezwykle miła pogawędka dwojga wyważonych, pogodzonych z losem ludzi, którzy ową harmonią, spokojem i ciepłą atmosferą czarują czytelnika od pierwszych słów. Julia Hartwig początkowo nie chciała się zgodzić na ten wywiad. Jest skromna, nie lubi zamieszania wokół siebie i nie przepada za opowiadaniem o swojej osobie. Na tę publikację namówił ją dopiero jej wieloletni przyjaciel, Jerzy Illg. Powstała w ten sposób niewielkich rozmiarów książeczka, w której pani Julia robi wszystko, byle pozostać w cieniu. Żałuję ogromnie, iż autoryzując tekst, usunęła najbardziej intymne zwierzenia i pozbawiła swoich czytelników możliwości głębszego poznania. “Najważniejsze jest to, czy mam coś do przekazania. Jeśli nie, to szkoda sobie i innym zabierać czas”, wyznaje autorka. Widocznie jej przekaz nie musi być pokaźnych rozmiarów, by robił wrażenie. Czy zatem mamy szansę natrafić w… As mandated by the UN General Assembly, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO will coordinate the Decade’s preparatory process, inviting the global ocean community to plan for the next ten years in ocean science and technology to deliver, together, the ocean we need for the future we want! Time series observations at critical or representative locations are one essential element of a global ocean observing system to complement a range of other approaches. They can provide: a unique view of the full temporal behavior of a system; accurate reference and long-time baseline data; and the maximum possible range of interlinked variables from the seafloor to the atmosphere while enabling shared resources. Obszar szelfu i stoku kontynentalnego są zbudowane ze skorupy kontynentalnej i przez geologów zaliczane do kontynentów. Obszary basenów oceanicznych, rowów oceanicznych i grzbietów śródoceanicznych mają skorupę typu oceanicznego i tworzą właściwy wszechocean. Formą pośrednią są tzw. mikrokontynenty – obszary położone na dnie oceanu, całkowicie lub prawie całkowicie przykryte wodą, a zbudowane ze skorupy kontynentalnej lub mieszanej. The deep ocean houses an ecosystem that has learned to thrive without sunlight or warmth. Welcome to the abyss. Scientists surveying an ocean area targeted for deep-sea mining have shown how much is left to discover about the biodiversity of the Clarion-Clipperton Zone, a five-million-square-kilometre region in the central Pacific Ocean. The Nintendo controller speaks to the fish by sending vibrations through the ocean at frequencies higher than humans can hear. These pulses are essentially commands translated into binary code (or perhaps Morse code), which the robo-fish can read despite the background vibrations of the ocean. 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