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What is ocean acidification? Do głównych form ukształtowania dna oceanicznego zalicza się: The Foresight reports are written by experts to brief ministers on medium and long-term issues of significance. This one has been signed off by ministers from four different departments as the authors emphasise the need for a joined-up oceans policy. Od czasu odkrycia w latach 50. XX w. zjawiska ekspansji dna oceanicznego, czyli powstawania zupełnie nowej skorupy ziemskiej w strefach grzbietów śródoceanicznych, oraz w wyniku badań wieku osadów oceanicznych i samej skorupy, rozwinęło się kilka teorii geotektonicznych, spośród których powszechnie dziś akceptowana jest teoria tektoniki płyt. A zone of rapid salinity increase with depth is called a halocline. The temperature of maximum density of seawater decreases as its salt content increases. Freezing temperature of water decreases with salinity, and boiling temperature of water increases with salinity. Typical seawater freezes at around −1.9 °C at atmospheric pressure. If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in polar and temperate regions, salinity will be lower. If evaporation exceeds precipitation, as is the case in tropical regions, salinity will be higher. Thus, oceanic waters in polar regions have lower salinity content than oceanic waters in temperate and tropical regions.[55] Thank the ocean with every breath you take, says Dr Sylvia Earle The word « ocean » comes from the figure in classical antiquity, Oceanus (/oʊˈsiːənəs/; Greek: Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós,[13] pronounced [ɔːkeanós]), the elder of the Titans in classical Greek mythology, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world. Large bodies of liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan, although they are not large enough to be considered oceans and are sometimes referred to as lakes or seas. The Cassini–Huygens space mission initially discovered only what appeared to be dry lakebeds and empty river channels, suggesting that Titan had lost what surface liquids it might have had. Cassini’s more recent fly-by of Titan offers radar images that strongly suggest hydrocarbon lakes exist near the colder polar regions. Titan is thought to have a subsurface liquid-water ocean under the ice and hydrocarbon mix that forms its outer crust. This acceleration of the current takes place in the direction of waves and dominant wind. Accordingly, when the sea depth increases, the rotation of the earth changes the direction of currents, in proportion with the increase of depth while friction lowers their speed. At a certain sea depth, the current changes direction and is seen inverted in the opposite direction with speed current becoming nul: known as the Ekman spiral. The influence of these currents is mainly experienced at the mixed layer of the ocean surface, often from 400 to 800 meters of maximum depth. These currents can considerably alter, change and are dependent on the various yearly seasons. If the mixed layer is less thick (10 to 20 meters), the quasi permanent current at the surface adopts an extreme oblique direction in relation to the direction of the wind, becoming virtually homogeneous, until the Thermocline.[38] We offer a wide range of education in the area of consideration, which includes both the construction of ships and floating objects, as well as the exploitation of oceans and seas. The offer have been prepared  in according to modern requirements of the market, including topics  related to the construction of small ships, yachts, coastal shipping vessels, inland, vessels for oil rig support, etc.,  as well as issues of technology, ship repair. We learn to build ships within range of the smallest yachts and fishing boats to the largest tankers and  large passenger vessels. Our oceans are changing fast. Find out how Museum collections are helping scientists to understand the future of marine life. Each bracelet purchased removes one pound of trash from the ocean. The United Nations has proclaimed a Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030) to gather ocean stakeholders worldwide behind a common framework that will ensure ocean science can fully support countries in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal 14 on the ocean. The mesopelagic area of the ocean plays a crucial role in marine ecosystems, but it has remained largely untouched and unexplored But now some nations are eyeing the deep sea as potentially rich new fishing grounds.24 days ago The most important legacies of the UN Decade of Ocean Science will be a new generation of ocean scientists and technicians, with the establishment of new research networks, and a new generation of enhanced observational systems, facilities and infrastructure that will help countries achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Decade will also raise unprecedented levels of interest and participation from youth, the general public, and decision-makers around the globe. If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in temperature with depth, it contains a thermocline. The tropical thermocline is typically deeper than the thermocline at higher latitudes. Polar waters, which receive relatively little solar energy, are not stratified by temperature and generally lack a thermocline because surface water at polar latitudes are nearly as cold as water at greater depths. Below the thermocline, water is very cold, ranging from −1 °C to 3 °C. Because this deep and cold layer contains the bulk of ocean water, the average temperature of the world ocean is 3.9 °C.[citation needed] If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in salinity with depth, it contains a halocline. If a zone undergoes a strong, vertical chemistry gradient with depth, it contains a chemocline. When you purchase the 4Ocean Signature Blue and Limited Edition Coral Reef Bracelets, we will remove two pounds of trash from the ocean and coastlines and also help to restore and regrow coral reefs through our partnership with the Coral Restoration Foundation*. These bracelets represent your support. Reef ecosystems just below the mesophotic zone – the maximum depth at which tropical reef-building corals can survive – have been largely ignored by ocean explorers. One reason fish are so diverse is that 70 percent of the planet is covered in water. The animals in this group live in a variety of habitats ranging from coral reefs and kelp forests to rivers, streams, and the open ocean. Another is that fish are very old on the evolutionary scale. According to fossil records, they have been on Earth for more than 500 million years! The total number of living fish species—about 32,000— is greater than the total of all other vertebrate species (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) combined. ©2018 · 1A, Heienhaff · L-1736 Senningerberg · Luxembourg · Dr Bruno Simões tells us how he pursued sea snakes from the mangroves to the open ocean to learn about their vision. Protect the ocean and you protect yourself © 2013 | Oceanographers divide the ocean into different vertical zones defined by physical and biological conditions. The pelagic zone includes all open ocean regions, and can be divided into further regions categorized by depth and light abundance. The photic zone includes the oceans from the surface to a depth of 200 m; it is the region where photosynthesis can occur and is, therefore, the most biodiverse. Because plants require photosynthesis, life found deeper than the photic zone must either rely on material sinking from above (see marine snow) or find another energy source. Hydrothermal vents are the primary source of energy in what is known as the aphotic zone (depths exceeding 200 m). The pelagic part of the photic zone is known as the epipelagic. Each bracelet purchased removes one pound of trash from the ocean. Thank you for considering a donation to Ocean Media Institute. As a creative media hub, OMI fosters the democratization of ocean science by working collaboratively with organizations, academic institutions, aquaria, and museums across the globe to produce and openly distribute innovative visual stories to address ocean issues. 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