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But the Foresight Future of the Sea Report for the UK government said there are also opportunities to cash in on the “ocean economy”. There’s a lot we don’t know about the ocean, simply because it’s so difficult for us to access. It was only thanks to advances in submersible technology that marine scientists have been able to explore down below the reef off the coast of Curaçao. Puffer fish and tropical fish spawn in lukewarm and warm oceans. Large bodies of liquid hydrocarbons are thought to be present on the surface of Titan, although they are not large enough to be considered oceans and are sometimes referred to as lakes or seas. The Cassini–Huygens space mission initially discovered only what appeared to be dry lakebeds and empty river channels, suggesting that Titan had lost what surface liquids it might have had. Cassini’s more recent fly-by of Titan offers radar images that strongly suggest hydrocarbon lakes exist near the colder polar regions. Titan is thought to have a subsurface liquid-water ocean under the ice and hydrocarbon mix that forms its outer crust. A zone of rapid salinity increase with depth is called a halocline. The temperature of maximum density of seawater decreases as its salt content increases. Freezing temperature of water decreases with salinity, and boiling temperature of water increases with salinity. Typical seawater freezes at around −1.9 °C at atmospheric pressure. If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in polar and temperate regions, salinity will be lower. If evaporation exceeds precipitation, as is the case in tropical regions, salinity will be higher. Thus, oceanic waters in polar regions have lower salinity content than oceanic waters in temperate and tropical regions.[55] A team at Massachusetts Institute of Technology has unveiled their own solution—an ultrasound-controlled, soft robotic fish. It’s not the only fish robot out there, but it could be the first that can swim in three dimensions, untethered, in the open ocean. Such a robot has the potential to transform the way biologists study the ocean. Ocean’s design is influenced by its coastal setting. Blues, whites and beiges create a modern classic look, while delightful hand-crafted furniture and specially commissioned artwork emphasise the feeling of luxury. White American shutters frame stunning views over the gardens to the ocean beyond. Według hipotezy ekspandującej Ziemi powstanie oceanów było aktem jednorazowym. Zgodnie z nią rozrost skorupy powoduje powiększanie się wszystkich oceanów i całej planety, był więc taki moment, kiedy nie było na Ziemi oceanów w dzisiejszym znaczeniu. Hipoteza ta nie potrafi wytłumaczyć istnienia ofiolitów, czyli zespołów skał identycznych z powstającymi pod powierzchnią oceanów, a znajdujących się obecnie niekiedy w głębi kontynentu. If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in temperature with depth, it contains a thermocline. The tropical thermocline is typically deeper than the thermocline at higher latitudes. Polar waters, which receive relatively little solar energy, are not stratified by temperature and generally lack a thermocline because surface water at polar latitudes are nearly as cold as water at greater depths. Below the thermocline, water is very cold, ranging from −1 °C to 3 °C. Because this deep and cold layer contains the bulk of ocean water, the average temperature of the world ocean is 3.9 °C.[citation needed] If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in salinity with depth, it contains a halocline. If a zone undergoes a strong, vertical chemistry gradient with depth, it contains a chemocline. As scientists from around the world gathered in San Diego this week at the Sixth International Marine Debris Conference, much of the discussion has been about plastic pollution of the ocean. In particular, synthetic microfibers that clothing sheds in washing machines passing through wastewater treatment plants and into the sea. Approximately 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by the ocean, and the ocean itself consists of approximately 80% deep sea. The deep sea offers enormous potential for ensuring effective and appropriate cycles and processes in the earth’s biosphere. Unfortunately, we have yet to make the most of this potential. This large-scale concept seeks to take advantage of the limitless possibilities of the deep sea by linking together vertically the air, sea surface, deep sea, and sea floor. Now is the time for us to create a new interface with the deep sea, the earth’s final frontier. To keep oceans healthy, we must fully understand the science of diverse fisheries and build management systems to control when, where, how, and how much people fish.  Although no-one has yet started mining the ocean floor, dozens of research expeditions are under way “at an intense pace”, says Michael Lodge, from the International Seabed Authority. Protect the ocean and you protect yourself Oceana Canada, an ocean research charity, is hoping citizen scientists in Halifax armed with DNA kits will help them sniff out seafood fraud. The rariphotic is a sort of “missing link” between medium-light reef zones and the lightless ocean beneath, known as the aphotic zone. Heirs to Our Oceans is a rising tide of young leaders around the globe who are taking the ocean crisis into their own hands, educating themselves and others, bringing hope and solutions to the surface, and creating waves of change that will ensure the health of our blue planet for their generation and for future generations. The value of the world’s oceans is set to double by 2030 but we know less about the bottom of the sea than we do about Mars. Navisea is designed for planning and tracking ocean voyages, and includes data on traffic, ports, docks, navigation, and weather. This app can make navigation tools accessible to smaller vessels and marry data from the economic-focused shipping industry with the environmental-focused government and NGO datasets. W wodzie oceanicznej znajduje się od 33 do 38 promili (licząc wagowo) różnych soli nieorganicznych. Stężenie to jest różne w różnych miejscach, lecz proporcje jonów są stałe. W kilogramie wody o stężeniu 35 promili znajduje się: But today, Pardo’s vision is becoming reality as the UN’s International Seabed Authority has drawn up maps dividing the ocean into blocks. Earth may be the blue planet, but beneath the ocean waves lies a vast forest of green.  Despite making up more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, there is still much about the oceans that we do not know. Cod spawn in normal, cold, and lukewarm oceans. Tins of tuna state that they are “dolphin-friendly” so should products using cobalt say if the metal was mined on land or in the ocean? What would the best choice be anyway? Should the vents so special to Attenborough be spared and only nodule mining allowed? What can antique corals reveal about the impact of climate change on the ocean? Scientists have just defined the newly named rariphotic zone, a layer of ocean between depths of 130 and 300 metres (400 and 1,000 feet) – a low-light or “twilight zone” in deeper reef regions. Oceana Canada, an ocean research charity, is hoping citizen scientists in Halifax armed with DNA kits will help them sniff out seafood fraud. (Elaine Thompson/Associated Press) There, we might find something to eat; of which there was little hope, out on the ocean. This is an industry-led proposal, focused on building upon Canada’s world-class ocean-related business activity, research capacity, and proven technology expertise. We aim to: Protect the ocean and you protect yourself The ocean covers more than two-thirds of our planet, and there’s so much of it left unexplored. How are we humans supposed to blend in to uncover all of its secrets, when our observation tools are hooked to clunky vehicles with fish-scaring propellers and jets? Oceans Deeply is designed to help you understand the complex web of environmental, social and economic issues facing the world’s oceans. Our editors and expert contributors work to bring you greater clarity and comprehensive coverage of ocean health. The challenges we face in managing our oceans effectively also present opportunities for innovation, collaboration, and actions. 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