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W zależności od klasyfikacji, wyróżnia się jeden, trzy, cztery lub pięć oceanów[2][3][4][5]: In fact, getting to the deepest reaches of the ocean is so expensive that some people – like Oscar-winning director James Cameron – take it upon themselves to explore underwater spaces rarely visited by humans. Endangered Waves can empower and incentivize surfers (there are 24 million worldwide) to monitor the health of their coastlines through crowdsourced data. Surfers can use this app to create crowdsourced data to identify and then reduce hazards in their local surf breaks. In the US, tourism and recreation comprise 72% of employment in the ocean economy and 31% of its gross value. Creating apps that cater to this market isn’t indulgent, it’s good business sense. A zone of rapid salinity increase with depth is called a halocline. The temperature of maximum density of seawater decreases as its salt content increases. Freezing temperature of water decreases with salinity, and boiling temperature of water increases with salinity. Typical seawater freezes at around −1.9 °C at atmospheric pressure. If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in polar and temperate regions, salinity will be lower. If evaporation exceeds precipitation, as is the case in tropical regions, salinity will be higher. Thus, oceanic waters in polar regions have lower salinity content than oceanic waters in temperate and tropical regions.[55] The gas giants, Jupiter and Saturn, are thought to lack surfaces and instead have a stratum of liquid hydrogen, however their planetary geology is not well understood. The possibility of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune having hot, highly compressed, supercritical water under their thick atmospheres has been hypothesised. Although their composition is still not fully understood, a 2006 study by Wiktorowicz and Ingersall ruled out the possibility of such a water “ocean” existing on Neptune,[60] though some studies have suggested that exotic oceans of liquid diamond are possible.[61] Covering 72 percent of the Earth and supplying half its oxygen, the ocean is our planet’s life support system—and it’s in danger. Watch this video to learn why a healthier ocean means a healthier planet, and find out how you can help. Reef ecosystems just below the mesophotic zone – the maximum depth at which tropical reef-building corals can survive – have been largely ignored by ocean explorers. Pledge to work together to solve the world’s greatest environmental problems and protect our oceans. A new ocean cleanup prototype is being deployed on the North Sea today. It is one of the last steps as we prepare to launch the first cleanup system in the Great Pacific Garbage Patch this summer. To understand how we arrived at this point, here is a brief history of the North Sea prototypes, and the reasons why we’re deploying another… Oceana Canada, an ocean research charity, is hoping citizen scientists in Halifax armed with DNA kits will help them sniff out seafood fraud. (Elaine Thompson/Associated Press) Nautilus Minerals forecasts that in copper alone an emerging undersea industry in oceans around the world could be worth $30bn a year by 2030. And it claims that by mining a small area of seabed, the venture will be friendlier to the environment. It contrasts its work with mines on land where trees and topsoil are swept away across vast areas. The Ocean Supercluster is a private sector-led partnership concentrated largely in Atlantic Canada that brings companies together to boost innovation and modernization in Canada’s ocean industries. Companies from different ocean sectors will co-invest to adopt and commercialize technologies to solve shared challenges. The Ocean Supercluster will also invest to develop talent, improve supply chain opportunities, and foster more ocean start-ups to build the innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystem. The first inkling that the ocean floor might hold a treasure trove of minerals came in the late 19th Century when a Royal Navy ship, HMS Challenger, was sent on a pioneering expedition. Instead of exploring the coasts of new lands, the ship was to investigate the oceans themselves. When you purchase the 4Ocean Limited Edition Coral Reef Bracelet, we will remove one pound of trash from the ocean and coastlines and also help to restore and regrow coral reefs through our partnership with the Coral Restoration Foundation*. This bracelet represents your support. A global layer of liquid water thick enough to decouple the crust from the mantle is thought to be present on the natural satellites Titan, Europa, Enceladus and, with less certainty, Callisto, Ganymede[62][63] and Triton.[64][65] A magma ocean is thought to be present on Io. Geysers have been found on Saturn’s moon Enceladus, possibly originating from about 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) deep ocean beneath an ice shell.[57] Other icy moons may also have internal oceans, or may once have had internal oceans that have now frozen.[66] Jim Mosher of Clearwater Seafood discusses how GIS will be critical to maintaining sustainable ocean ecosystems GCOS Implementation Plan 2016   !NEW! Publications GOOS webinar on OceanSITES’ Unique Role in the Observing System Available here OceanSITES poster at EGU2015 Poster 1 Poster 2 Deep-Ocean T/S Challenge: Contribute a deep-ocean T/S Sensor! More information The Sustainable Ocean Alliance (SOA) is a global organization that advances the impact of start-ups, social enterprises and youth-centered initiatives that are developing solutions to protect and sustain our ocean. SOA’s pipeline of ocean leaders, ages 16-35, is cultivated through a chapter-based model, led by students at the high school and college levels, as well as by young professionals. This scientific research informs debates on issues including climate change, ocean acidification and plastics in the sea. We give youth access to high-level conversation and a platform to showcase their ideas and solutions that can protect our ocean. We foster the entrepreneurial spirit of our members and challenge them to design creative policy and business solutions. SOA currently supports over 160 youth-led sustainability projects around the globe. Supercritical fluids, although not liquids, do share various properties with liquids. Underneath the thick atmospheres of the planets Uranus and Neptune, it is expected that these planets are composed of oceans of hot high-density fluid mixtures of water, ammonia and other volatiles.[86] The gaseous outer layers of Jupiter and Saturn transition smoothly into oceans of supercritical hydrogen.[87][88] The atmosphere of Venus is 96.5% carbon dioxide, which is a supercritical fluid at its surface. Researchers have found seven new animal species living along the Southwest Indian Ridge, 3,000 metres beneath the surface of the ocean, in an area targeted for deep-sea mining. Ocean currents greatly affect Earth’s climate by transferring heat from the tropics to the polar regions. Transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, winds may carry them inland. Surface heat and freshwater fluxes create global density gradients that drive the thermohaline circulation part of large-scale ocean circulation. It plays an important role in supplying heat to the polar regions, and thus in sea ice regulation. Changes in the thermohaline circulation are thought to have significant impacts on Earth’s energy budget. In so far as the thermohaline circulation governs the rate at which deep waters reach the surface, it may also significantly influence atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. One of the most dramatic forms of weather occurs over the oceans: tropical cyclones (also called “typhoons” and “hurricanes” depending upon where the system forms). The pelagic zone can be further subdivided into two subregions: the neritic zone and the oceanic zone. The neritic zone encompasses the water mass directly above the continental shelves whereas the oceanic zone includes all the completely open water. Sustainable development and conservation of ocean and coastal resources requires the insights… Then join UNESCO’s IOC to design the UN Decade of Ocean Science and have your say about the next 10 years of ocean science development! Join Ocean Futures Society today–Be part of Jean-Michel’s team as we explore the world and address important issues. With our updates, you can add your voice for the ocean! Beaked whales can dive 2,000 metres below the ocean’s surface. 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