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The XPRIZE Ocean Initiative is dedicated to ensuring our ocean is healthy, valued and understood. The Nintendo controller speaks to the fish by sending vibrations through the ocean at frequencies higher than humans can hear. These pulses are essentially commands translated into binary code (or perhaps Morse code), which the robo-fish can read despite the background vibrations of the ocean. The researchers tested their creation out in the Pacific Ocean, at depths from zero to 18 meters (59 feet), according to the study published today in Science Robotics. This challenge is important because there is a wealth of ocean data being collected, but so little of it being used. As long as ocean data remains disconnected, we are unable to address the critical challenges our ocean faces. A mission to map the hidden ocean floor GCOS Implementation Plan 2016   !NEW! Publications GOOS webinar on OceanSITES’ Unique Role in the Observing System Available here OceanSITES poster at EGU2015 Poster 1 Poster 2 Deep-Ocean T/S Challenge: Contribute a deep-ocean T/S Sensor! More information Puffer fish and tropical fish spawn in lukewarm and warm oceans. Professor Richard Twitchett explains what a more acidic ocean could mean for the future of marine life. A zone of rapid salinity increase with depth is called a halocline. The temperature of maximum density of seawater decreases as its salt content increases. Freezing temperature of water decreases with salinity, and boiling temperature of water increases with salinity. Typical seawater freezes at around −1.9 °C at atmospheric pressure. If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in polar and temperate regions, salinity will be lower. If evaporation exceeds precipitation, as is the case in tropical regions, salinity will be higher. Thus, oceanic waters in polar regions have lower salinity content than oceanic waters in temperate and tropical regions.[55] Early ancestors of the ocean’s biggest animals once walked on land. Follow their extraordinary journey from shore to sea.  Istnienie oceanu na księżycu Saturna zwiększa szanse na znalezienie życia pozaziemskiego w naszym Układzie Słonecznym. This acceleration of the current takes place in the direction of waves and dominant wind. Accordingly, when the sea depth increases, the rotation of the earth changes the direction of currents, in proportion with the increase of depth while friction lowers their speed. At a certain sea depth, the current changes direction and is seen inverted in the opposite direction with speed current becoming nul: known as the Ekman spiral. The influence of these currents is mainly experienced at the mixed layer of the ocean surface, often from 400 to 800 meters of maximum depth. These currents can considerably alter, change and are dependent on the various yearly seasons. If the mixed layer is less thick (10 to 20 meters), the quasi permanent current at the surface adopts an extreme oblique direction in relation to the direction of the wind, becoming virtually homogeneous, until the Thermocline.[38] But it stresses that the ocean is being assailed from many different types of pollution – including run-off pesticides and fertilisers from farms, industrial toxins like PCBs, and pharmaceuticals. What affects the oceans affects terra firma. Ocean Solutions, Earth Solutions gathers the insights of more than 70 ocean and coastal science researchers exploring ocean components and their relationships, patterns, and trends over time and space. Read more W skład oceanów (układów oceanicznych) wchodzą także mniejsze obszary wodne, jak: morza, zatoki, kanały, zalewy i cieśniny, które od pełnych wód oceanicznych mogą być oddzielone półwyspami, wyspami bądź archipelagami. Wszystkie te zasoby wodne Ziemi określa się łącznie mianem wszechoceanu. The first inkling that the ocean floor might hold a treasure trove of minerals came in the late 19th Century when a Royal Navy ship, HMS Challenger, was sent on a pioneering expedition. Instead of exploring the coasts of new lands, the ship was to investigate the oceans themselves. Plastic is everywhere – even the deepest parts of the ocean are now awash with it. In-depth coverage of ocean health. Learn more about us. New studies show complex effects of carbon dioxide on fish population. Many studies have shown that larvae of various fish species can be negatively affected by ocean acidification. Acidification is caused by large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) entering the seawater from the atmosphere. But CO2 can also influence the food supply for the fish … more Ocean & Coastal Management is an international journal published 12 times per year dedicated to the study of all aspects of ocean and coastal management at international, national, regional, and local levels. Reef ecosystems just below the mesophotic zone – the maximum depth at which tropical reef-building corals can survive – have been largely ignored by ocean explorers. It is often stated that the thermohaline circulation is the primary reason that the climate of Western Europe is so temperate. An alternate hypothesis claims that this is largely incorrect, and that Europe is warm mostly because it lies downwind of an ocean basin, and because atmospheric waves bring warm air north from the subtropics.[39][40] Wiatry wiejące nad rozległymi obszarami wodnymi powodują powstawanie na powierzchni oceanu fal. Katastrofalne zjawiska, takie jak podwodne trzęsienia ziemi, wybuchy wulkanów czy rozległe osuwiska wywołują niszczące fale tsunami. Znacznie rzadziej tsunami może powstać na skutek upadku planetoidy, która trafi w powierzchnię oceanu. To put into perspective just how deep the oceans go, Xkcd.com created the illustration below (click the image for a larger version). “The abyssal plains,” he asserted, “may have the highest biodiversity in the oceans, maybe the highest biodiversity on the planet.” If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in temperature with depth, it contains a thermocline. The tropical thermocline is typically deeper than the thermocline at higher latitudes. Polar waters, which receive relatively little solar energy, are not stratified by temperature and generally lack a thermocline because surface water at polar latitudes are nearly as cold as water at greater depths. Below the thermocline, water is very cold, ranging from −1 °C to 3 °C. Because this deep and cold layer contains the bulk of ocean water, the average temperature of the world ocean is 3.9 °C.[citation needed] If a zone undergoes dramatic changes in salinity with depth, it contains a halocline. If a zone undergoes a strong, vertical chemistry gradient with depth, it contains a chemocline. “Where we’ll be operating, it’s cold and dark,” says one senior Nautilus executive. “There are no tuna there, they need entirely different conditions near the surface of the ocean.” Ocean & Coastal Management is an international journal published 12 times per year dedicated to the study of all aspects of ocean and coastal management at international, national, regional, and local levels. The Decade will act to fill major gaps in our knowledge of the ocean and ability to sustainable manage its resources: The Sustainable Ocean Alliance (SOA) is a global organization that advances the impact of start-ups, social enterprises and youth-centered initiatives that are developing solutions to protect and sustain our ocean. SOA’s pipeline of ocean leaders, ages 16-35, is cultivated through a chapter-based model, led by students at the high school and college levels, as well as by young professionals. A zone of rapid salinity increase with depth is called a halocline. The temperature of maximum density of seawater decreases as its salt content increases. Freezing temperature of water decreases with salinity, and boiling temperature of water increases with salinity. Typical seawater freezes at around −1.9 °C at atmospheric pressure. If precipitation exceeds evaporation, as is the case in polar and temperate regions, salinity will be lower. If evaporation exceeds precipitation, as is the case in tropical regions, salinity will be higher. Thus, oceanic waters in polar regions have lower salinity content than oceanic waters in temperate and tropical regions.[55] SOA’s mission is reinforced through our national and international high school, university, and young professional chapters. 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