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According to a scientific meeting at the Museum this week, mining the deep ocean for minerals could cause wide-ranging, decades-long disturbances to the seafloor’s diverse ecosystems. Advocates of exploiting the ocean also point to the size of mines on land compared with those that would be operated underwater. Kennecott in Utah and Chuquicamata and Escondida in Chile involve mind-bogglingly large holes in the ground. They stretch nearly three miles across (4km) and reach more than half a mile deep (645m-1200m). The pelagic part of the aphotic zone can be further divided into vertical regions according to temperature. The mesopelagic is the uppermost region. Its lowermost boundary is at a thermocline of 12 °C (54 °F), which, in the tropics generally lies at 700–1,000 meters (2,300–3,300 ft). Next is the bathypelagic lying between 10 and 4 °C (50 and 39 °F), typically between 700–1,000 meters (2,300–3,300 ft) and 2,000–4,000 meters (6,600–13,100 ft), lying along the top of the abyssal plain is the abyssopelagic, whose lower boundary lies at about 6,000 meters (20,000 ft). The last zone includes the deep oceanic trench, and is known as the hadalpelagic. This lies between 6,000–11,000 meters (20,000–36,000 ft) and is the deepest oceanic zone. Odkrycie umożliwiły pomiary prowadzone przez sondę Cassini. Badania prowadzone przez Luciano Iessa z Uniwersytetu La Sapienza w Rzymie, opublikowane w czasopiśmie “Science”, pokazują, że w ciągu trzech przelotów w pobliżu Enceladusa między 2010 i 2012 rokiem, prędkość sondy Cassini nieznacznie zmieniała się w odpowiedzi na wahania w polu grawitacyjnym księżyca. Właśnie to naukowcy tłumaczą obecnością dużego zbiornika ciekłej wody w okolicach bieguna południowego księżyca. Istnienie podziemnego oceanu może być także źródłem gwałtownych wybuchów pary, obserwowanych na powierzchni księżyca. Despite making up more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, there is still much about the oceans that we do not know. The ocean offers a range of dining options.  Deep-sea mining plans need a better grasp of ocean floor ecosystems In an air-conditioned cabin in a teeming port in Papua New Guinea, Leslie Kewa reaches for a joystick that will control a machine the size of a house. Nearly half a century after the CIA men pretended to mine the ocean floor, he’s about to do it for real. Scientists are investigating the role microbiomes play in coral health, trying to identity those microbial traits that make coral reefs resilient as ocean temperatures rise and bleaching events accelerate.9 days ago While all major international assessments find that much of the ocean is now seriously degraded, there is an increasingly urgent need to find scientific solutions that allow us to understand the changes taking place in our ocean, and to reverse the declining health of our planet’s largest ecosystem. The Foresight reports are written by experts to brief ministers on medium and long-term issues of significance. This one has been signed off by ministers from four different departments as the authors emphasise the need for a joined-up oceans policy. Covering 72 percent of the Earth and supplying half its oxygen, the ocean is our planet’s life support system—and it’s in danger. Watch this video to learn why a healthier ocean means a healthier planet, and find out how you can help. Scientists designed SoFi to solve several problems that bedevil oceanic robotics. Problem one: communication. Underwater vehicles are typically tethered to a boat because radio waves don’t do well in water. What SoFi’s inventors have opted for instead is sound. Lanternfish are one of many animals that light up the ocean with their glowing bodies. Together we’re building an online community for people to share ideas, collaborate, and invent technology that could help keep our oceans healthy. Did you know that coral reefs support more species than any other marine environment and rival rainforests in their biodiversity? 2018 is the third International Year of the Reef—a platform to highlight the importance of coral reefs. Covering less than one percent of the planet, reefs are the home to 25 percent of marine species and supply food to millions of people. They are also vital to our ocean economy, providing billions of dollars in services, such coastal protection, jobs, tourism and more. But there’s no other option. The machine will soon be deployed not in the huge pits of an opencast mine on land but in the sunless depths a mile underwater on the ocean floor. OceanSITES is a worldwide system of long-term, open-ocean reference stations measuring dozens of variables and monitoring the full depth of the ocean from air-sea interactions down to the seafloor. It is a network of stations or observatories measuring many aspects of the ocean’s surface and water column using, where possible, automated systems with advanced sensors and telecommunications systems, yielding high time resolution, often in real-time, while building a long record. Observations cover meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and parameters relevant to the carbon cycle, ocean acidification, the ecosystem, and geophysics. “One Ocean” takes viewers on a journey from the intense heat of the tropics to the planet’s frozen poles. Life has spread to almost every part of the ocean, but there are many different worlds within it, and each presents unique challenges. “We made ocean mining seem a lot more credible,” Sharp says. “We really misled a lot of people and it’s surprising that the story held together for so long.” “That’s understandable for areas that are thousands of miles offshore and miles deep. But tropical deep reefs are just below popular, highly studied shallow reefs – essentially our own backyards. And tropical deep reefs are not barren landscapes on the deep ocean floor: they are highly diverse ecosystems that warrant further study. We hope that by naming the deep-reef rariphotic zone, we’ll draw attention to the need to continue to explore deep reefs.” The United Nations has proclaimed a Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030) to gather ocean stakeholders worldwide behind a common framework that will ensure ocean science can fully support countries in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goal 14 on the ocean. Lanternfish are one of many animals that light up the ocean with their glowing bodies. In addition, many land animals have adapted to living a major part of their life on the oceans. For instance, seabirds are a diverse group of birds that have adapted to a life mainly on the oceans. They feed on marine animals and spend most of their lifetime on water, many only going on land for breeding. Other birds that have adapted to oceans as their living space are penguins, seagulls and pelicans. Seven species of turtles, the sea turtles, also spend most of their time in the oceans. Our mission is to explore our global ocean, inspiring and educating people throughout the world to act responsibly for its protection, documenting the critical connection between humanity and nature, and celebrating the ocean’s vital importance to the survival of all life on our planet. Covering 72 percent of the Earth and supplying half its oxygen, the ocean is our planet’s life support system—and it’s in danger. Watch this video to learn why a healthier ocean means a healthier planet, and find out how you can help. Sustainable development and conservation of ocean and coastal resources requires the insights of a number of monodisciplinary, multidisciplinary as well as integral studies and approaches. The different disciplines may range from the natural and physical sciences to the social sciences, policy analysis, economics, and law. The geologist Bram Murton has warned of “an ill-informed knee-jerk reaction” to ocean mining which, he says, offers the potential to support a low-carbon future. The motions of the ocean surface, known as undulations or waves, are the partial and alternate rising and falling of the ocean surface. The series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air is called swell.[citation needed] The most important legacies of the UN Decade of Ocean Science will be a new generation of ocean scientists and technicians, with the establishment of new research networks, and a new generation of enhanced observational systems, facilities and infrastructure that will help countries achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. 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